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    2. 首 页 《读者》航空版 关于《读者》 订购《读者》 早期文章 在线投稿 来稿选登 广告刊登
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      茶与祭祀文化小考
      来源:中国网    时间:2012/5/14    阅读:6448次

       

        祭祀是我国古代社会中较婚姻更为经常的一种礼制和生活内容。那么,茶是什么时候开始用来作祭的呢?一般认为,茶是在被用作饮料以后,才派生出一系列的次生文化的。这也即是说,只有在茶叶成为日常生活用品之后,才慢慢被用诸或吸收到我国礼制包括丧礼之中。我国随葬用的明器,《释名》称“送死之器”,主要是一些“助生送死,追思终副”的物品。至于祭礼,如东汉阮瑀在七哀诗中所吟:“嘉肴设不御,旨酒盈觞杯”,都是死者生前享用和最喜欢吃的那些东西。在上引诗句中,可以约略看出,我国大致在东汉时,至少这时的北方,还没有用茶来作祭礼。
        
        我国以茶为祭,是在以茶待客,大致是两晋以后才逐渐兴起的。从文献记载来看,如唐代韩愈“……礼贤,方闻置茗;晋臣爱客,才有分茶”,我国以茶待客、以茶相赠,最初是流行于三国和两晋的江南地区。因此,茶叶作为祭品,不会早于这一时期。至于用茶为祭的正式记载,则直到梁萧子显撰写的《南齐书》中才始见及。该书《武帝本纪》载,永明十一年(493)七月诏:“我灵上慎勿以牲为祭,唯设饼、茶饮、干饭、酒脯而已,天上贵贱,咸同此制。”齐武帝萧颐,是南朝比较节俭的少数统治者之一。这里他遗嘱灵上唯设饼、茶一类为祭,是现存茶叶作祭的最早记载,但不是以茶为祭的开始。在丧事纪念中用茶作祭品,当最初创始于民间,萧颐则是把民间出现的这种礼俗,吸收到统治阶级的丧礼之中,鼓励和推广了这种制度。
        
        把茶叶用作丧事的祭品,只是祭礼的一种。我国祭祀活动,还有祭天、祭地、祭祖、祭神、祭仙、祭佛,不可尽言。茶叶之用于这些祭祀的时间,大致也和上说的用于丧事的时间相差不多。如晋《神异记》中有这样一个故事:讲余姚有个叫虞洪的人,一天进山采茶,遇到一个道士,把虞洪引到瀑布山,说:我是丹丘子(传说中的仙人),听说你善于煮饮,常常想能分到点尝尝。山里有大茶树,可以相帮采摘,希望他日有剩茶时,请留一点给我。虞洪回家以后,“因立奠祀”,每次派家人进山,也都能得到大茶叶。另《异苑》中也记有这样一则传说:剡县陈务妻,年轻时和两个儿子寡居。她好饮茶,院子里面有一座古坟,每次饮茶时,都要先在坟前浇点茶奠祭一下。两个儿子很讨厌,说古坟知道什么?白费心思,要把坟挖掉,母亲苦苦劝说才止祝一天夜里,得一梦,见一人说:“我埋在这里三百多年了,你两个儿子屡欲毁坟,蒙你保护,又赐我好茶,我虽已是地下朽骨,但不能忘记稍作酬报。”天亮,在院子中发现有十万钱,看钱似在地下埋了很久,但穿的绳子是新的。母亲把这事告诉两个儿子后,二人很惭愧,自此祭祷更勤。透过这些故事,不难看出在二晋南北朝时,茶叶也开始广泛地用于各种祭祀活动了。
        
        不过,上面讲的例子,都是发生在南方的事,至于在黄河流域和北方一带,广泛用茶为祭品的时期,一般认为是在隋唐统一全国,特别是唐代中期北方饮茶风行之后。这一点,从唐代的贡茶制度中也能多少看出一点。贡茶是专门进奉宫廷御用的茶叶。我国茶叶作为方物,进贡的历史甚早;但是,专门设立贡茶基地--贡焙,还是唐代中期才出现的事情。唐朝的茶叶,如郑谷《蜀中》诗句描写的“蒙顶茶畦千点露,浣花笺纸一溪春”;由于小气候的关系,蒙顶山上的茶叶,被誉为“天下第一”,每年也入贡。但是,由于蒙顶茶数量少,蜀道难行,所以,唐代的贡焙,还是设在紧挨运河和国道线上的常州宜兴和湖州长兴相界的顾渚。其所以把贡焙选定在宜兴、长兴二县,与这里所出茶叶质量较好有一定关系,但主要的,还如李郢的诗句所吟:“一月五程路四千,到时须及清明宴”;要赶在清明前面贡到。“清明宴”,是清明祭祀结束以后的宴请活动,所以,“须及清明宴”是假,要赶上清明的祭祀是真。由此,我们虽不能分辨北方是宫廷还是民间以茶作祭为先,但至少从上述贡茶制度中可以看出,唐代中期时,北方应用茶来作祭礼,也差不多已与南方同样重视。
        
        茶叶作为祭品,无论是尊天敬地或拜佛祭祖,比一般以茶为礼,要更虔诚、讲究一些。王室用于祭典的,全部是进贡的上好茶叶,就是一般寺庙中用于祭佛的,也都总是想法选留最好的茶叶。如《蛮瓯志》记称:“《觉林院志》崇收茶三等:待客以惊雷荚,自奉以萱草带,供佛以紫茸香。盖最上以供佛,而最下以自奉也。”我国南方很多寺庙都种茶,所收茶叶一饷香客,二以供佛,三堪自用,一般都是作如上三用,但更倾心的,还是为敬佛之用。
        
        我国古代用茶作祭,一般有这样三种形式:在茶碗、茶盏中注以茶水;不煮泡只放以干茶;不放茶,只置茶壶、茶盅作象征。但也有例外者,如明徐献忠《吴兴掌故集》载:“我朝太祖皇帝喜顾渚茶,今定制,岁贡奉三十二斤,清明年(前)二日,县官亲诣采造,进南京奉先殿焚香而已。”在宜兴的县志中,也有类似的记载。这就是说,在明永乐迁都北京以后,宜兴、长兴除向北京进贡芽茶以外,还要在清明前二日,各贡几十斤茶叶供奉先殿祭祖焚化;祭茶采用焚烧的特殊形式。
        
        我国许多兄弟民族,也有以茶为祭品的习惯。如云南西双版纳的布朗族,50年代以前,他们虽然受傣族文化影响信仰小乘佛教,但自然崇拜、祖先崇拜等原始宗教的信仰和祭祀活动,仍要超过佛事活动。布朗人的自然崇拜,以崇拜神鬼精灵最为突出,他们认为日月星辰,风雨雷电,山林河路,村寨房屋,生老病死,庄稼畜禽,无不都是由神鬼主宰的。据约略统计,他们平时祭奠的鬼名有80多种。至于农业的祭祀活动,更是频繁,从烧山开地一直到收获进仓,都要举行一系列的祭祀活动。所有上述各种祭祀,一般都只用饭菜、竹笋和茶叶这三种祭品,将它们分成三份,放在芭蕉叶上;只有较大的祭祀活动才杀猪宰牛。再如云南文山壮族支系的布依人,他们敬奉的神灵较少,主要供奉“老人厅”、“龙树”和“土地庙”。老人厅设在寨中,供奉神农的牌位。土地庙一般都建在村寨边上,龙树则在稍远一些的山坡上。布侬人的祭祀活动,如祭土地,每月初一、十五,由全寨各家轮流到庙中点灯敬茶,祈求土地神保护全寨人畜平安。祭品很简单,主要是用茶。特别值得一提的是比较独特的不是祭品的丧俗用茶,居住在云南丽江的纳西族,无论男女老少,在死时快断气前,都要往死者嘴里放些银末、茶叶和米粒,他们认为只有这样,死者才能到“神地”。对这种风俗,一般认为上述三者分别代表钱财、喝的和吃的;即生前有吃有喝又有财,死后也能到一个好的地方。
        
        祭祀活动中的以茶作祭品的情况,可以说是茶文化发展过程中衍生出来的一种带有封建迷信的副文化。茶是在我国祭祀发展的较迟阶段上才加入祭品的,而且它在减轻祭祀糜费和适应大众需要方面,也有过一定积极意义。但是,它毕竟只能是人类生产力和科学、文化都比较低下的一种历史社会现象。《尚书》等古籍中提到:祭言察也,察者至也,言人事至于神也。随着社会发展和人类认识和改造自然能力的提高,社会中的“人事”和人们对“神”的观念,都在不断变化。事实也是如此,随着国家建设的不断发展,如今我国的祭祀发生了根本性变化,以至上述祭祀活动已变成了历史的陈迹。存在决定意识。我们不能预言将来祭祀会不会在社会生活中消失,但是可以肯定,即使将来仍然有祭祀或保留有用茶作祭的礼仪,它过去所带的那些封建迷信成分,必然会随着人们头脑中的封建意识的消除而消除。所以,这里把已经和正在消失的茶叶祭祀内容重翻出来,为的是全面叙述茶叶文化曾走过的历史道路。


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