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    2. 首 页 《读者》航空版 关于《读者》 订购《读者》 早期文章 在线投稿 来稿选登 广告刊登
      论  坛 时代快讯 出版消息 文化动态 健康生活 音  乐 中文教育 读者心声
      看 世 界 艺术欣赏 茶  学 饮食文化 关  注 名言警句 幽  默 范子登专栏
      茶与名人
      茶  史
      茶  艺
      茶叶介绍
      茶与养生
      茶业资讯
      茶  器
      茶  画
      当前位置:首页茶  学茶  史
      中国的茶祭风俗
      来源:中国网    时间:2012/8/12    阅读:6262次

       

        在我国五彩缤纷的民间习俗中,"茶"与丧祭的关系也是十分密切的。"无茶不在丧"的观念,在中华祭祀礼仪中根深蒂固。
        
        祭祀用茶早在南北朝时梁朝萧子显撰写的《南齐书》中就有记载:齐武帝萧颐永明十一年在遗诏中称:"我灵上慎勿以牲为祭,唯设饼果、茶饮、干饭、酒脯而已。"
        
        以茶为祭,可祭天、地、神、佛,也可祭鬼魂,这就与丧葬习俗发生了密切的联系。上到皇宫贵族,下至庶民百姓,在祭祀中都离不开清香芬芳的茶叶。茶叶不是达官贵人才能独享,用茶叶祭扫也不是皇室的专利。无论是汉族,还是少数民族,都在较大程度上保留着以茶祭祀祖宗神灵,用茶陪丧的古老风俗。
        
        用茶作祭,一般有三种方式:以茶水为祭,放干茶为祭,只将茶壶、茶盅象征茶叶为祭。
        
        在我国清代,宫廷祭祀祖陵时必用茶叶。据载同治十年(1871年)冬至大祭时即有"松罗茶叶十三两"记载。在光绪五年(1879年)岁暮大祭的祭品中也有"松罗茶叶二斤"的记述。而在我国民间则历来流传以"三茶六酒"(三杯茶、六杯酒)和"清茶四果"作为丧葬中祭品的习俗。如在我国广东、江西一带,清明祭祖扫墓时,就有将一包茶叶与其它祭品一起摆放于坟前,或在坟前斟上三杯茶水,祭祀先人的习俗。茶叶还作为随葬品。从长沙马王堆西汉古墓的发掘中已经知道,我国早在2100多年前已将茶叶作为随葬物品。因古人认为茶叶有"洁净、干燥"作用,茶叶随葬有利于墓穴吸收异味、有利于遗体保存。
        
        历古以来,我国都有在死者手中放置一包茶叶的习俗。像安徽寿县地区,人们认为人死后必经"孟婆亭"饮"迷魂汤",故成殓时,须用茶叶一包,并拌以土灰置于死者手中,这样死者的灵魂过孟婆亭时即可以不饮迷魂汤了。而浙江地区为让死者不饮迷魂汤(又称"孟婆汤"),则于死者临终前除日衔银锭外,要先用甘露叶作成一菱形状的附葬品(模拟"水红菱"),再在死者手中置茶叶一包。认为死者有此两物,死后如口渴,有甘露、红菱,即可不饮迷魂汤。原来在封建迷信中,人死后要被阴间鬼役驱至"孟婆亭"灌饮迷魂汤,目的是为了让死者忘却人间旧事,甚而要将死者导人迷津备受欺凌或服苦役,而饮茶后则可以让"死者清醒",保持理智而不受鬼役蒙骗。故茶叶成为重要的随葬品。
        
        茶在我国的丧葬习俗中,还成为重要的"信物"。在我国湖南地区,旧时盛行棺木葬时,死者的枕头要用茶叶作为填充料,称为"茶叶枕头"。茶叶枕头的枕套用白布制作,呈三角形状,内部用茶叶灌满填充(大多用粗茶叶)。死者枕茶叶枕头的寓意,一是死者至阴曹地府要喝茶时,可随时"取出泡茶";一是茶叶放置棺木内,可消除异味。在我国江苏的有些地区,则在死者人殓时,先在棺材底撒上一层茶叶、米粒。至出殡盖棺时再撒上一层茶叶、米粒,其用意主要是起干燥、除味作用,有利于遗体的保存。
        
        丧葬时用茶叶,大多是为死者而备,但我国福建福安地区却有为活人而备茶叶,悬挂"龙籽袋"的习俗。旧时福安地区,凡家中有人亡故,都得清风水先生看风水,选择"宝地"后再挖穴埋葬。在棺木入穴前,由风水先生在地穴里铺上地毯,口中则念念有词。这时香火绕缭,鞭炮声起,风水先生就将一把把茶叶、豆子、谷子、芝麻及竹钉、钱币等撒在穴中的地毯上,再由亡者家属将撒在地毯上的东西收集起来,用布袋装好,封好口,悬挂在家中楼梁式木仓内长久保存,名为"龙籽袋"。龙籽袋据说象征死者留给家属的"财富"。其寓意是,茶叶历来是吉祥之物,能"驱妖除魔",并保佑死者的子孙"消灾祛病"、"人丁兴旺",豆和谷子等则象征后代"五谷丰登"、"六畜兴旺";钱币等则示后代子孙享有"金银钱物"、"财源茂盛"、"吃穿不愁"。


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